What is Electrical Earthing?

What is Electrical Earthing?

What is Electrical Earthing?

What is earthing and how to use it for extra protection from lightning.  Unexpected accidents such as high voltage or earth leakage can happen in our various installations.  These can damage electrical appliances like TVs, refrigerators, fans, lines, etc.

Basically in such a situation the current is transmitted to ground by a conductor from the metal or outer shell of the electrical equipment to protect the electrical equipment and its user.  This process of sending electricity to the ground is called earthing.

Earthing is often referred to by electrical engineers as grounding.  Because it is possible to deliver electricity to the ground through earthing.  If for some reason leakage current occurs in the electrical connection, earthing helps the leakage current to flow smoothly through the wire to ground without any danger.


How many types of earthing are there?

Generally there are two types of earthing systems based on the usage.  As if:

  1. System Earthing
  2. Earthing Equipment

System earthing is usually done at neutral points of transformer and generator.  On the other hand, equipment earthing systems are used to protect our household electrical equipment.


What are the earthing requirements?

If there is a fault in the electrical circuit, the earthing leakage cuts off the current from the faulty circuit.  This protects the electrical equipment and the user from the possibility of a major accident.  So earthing is highly needed for safe power access.

It also ensures that no part of the earthing voltage system is more specific than ground.  In addition, earthing plays a special role in ensuring that the voltage of the equipment does not reach dangerous levels due to problems in the system.  Especially earthing protects electrical equipment from high voltage.

Sometimes earthing is also used as neutral of transformer.  In addition, earthing is used to protect life and property from natural calamities such as short circuit of line and electricity.  Earthing is therefore an essential part of modern electrical connections and its safe use.


What is the difference between neutral and earthing?

Earthing is directly related to soil.  As a result, excess power enters the ground directly through the earthing.  On the other hand, neutral lines return directly to the power station or transformer, not to ground.

Under normal circumstances, electricity would flow in neutral and this provides a relatively short path.  Earthing, on the other hand, provides protection to the electrical equipment and its users.  This means that in dangerous situations, power is quickly sent to the ground via a short circuit.

However, the question in the mind of many people is that if the electric current goes back from the neutral line, then why does the current not shock?  One thing is worth noting here;  The degree of electric shock depends on the electric pressure i.e. voltage.  But the neutral line voltage remains zero and in most cases grounding is done with earth.  So we are not shocked because there is no electric pressure.


Where is earthing required?

  • In any electrical appliance(s).
  • On the overhead transmission line.
  • To connect the transformer.
  • As the neutral point of the generator.
  • For home, office or factory security.


Method of earthing:

Earthing rules vary depending on the application.  Earthing is usually done at home by inserting sticks into the ground.  Earthing is done by connecting the cable at the top end of the rod with the neutral of the main distribution panel.

To make a mixture of water and salt, generally more than five feet pits have to be dug in sandy soil, dry soil, rocky soil.  Then you have to leave the metal plate and bring it out by putting earthing wire in it and connect it to the neutral of main distribution board.

Earthing is usually done with thin GI pipe (galvanized iron pipe).  Body earthing of electrical equipment made of outer cover metal is essential.  Usually for home, home and office only when the earth resistance is less than 5 ohms.  But for substation it should be less than 1 ohm.

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